Community engagement in Urban Sanitation – Nanded experience

(This piece was written by me on March 6, 2012 when I was working as  Municipal Commissioner, NWCMC, Nanded)

The challenge of Sanitation has been discussed, debatedand tried to be addressed more in the rural areas. I do not know how much of that is due to the problem being more severe in rural areas and how much due to other factors – such as romanticism with rural development. In rural areas, space is not really a constraint, and with relatively less plastic use, the garbage is not that unsightly. It was only the shit and the scene of people sitting on the approach roads to a village, which were now cement ones, that sent a shock ! In the city, there are no such leisure open spaces that can be out of sight (out of mind) for people. There are though the areas- slums, areas adjoining Railways, dumping grounds, open plots, which are not so obvious to the outsiders (or chosen to be ignored) – but very obvious to the residents there. The sanitation issues in the city, except the space aspect, differs from the rural areas in few more aspects- first, it is more comprehensive and does not limit to the open daefecation. It touches solid waste management. It is also more ‘complex’ in the sense that it is more closely knit with the hardware- the sewage system, the supply chain for garbage collection etc. Although there may be options reducing the dependence on the extrinsic professional service, such as a community digging its own pit and making compost, they have not been tried and tested enough. For waste water management, it is even more difficult. In a city, people would expect services to a much greater level than a rural area. Despite attempts at professionalizing service delivery, gaps remain.

The conviction that any efficient service delivery- more so, sanitation- has two aspects- behavioural change and professional service delivery however cuts rural-urban boundaries. The debate on whether the former should conform to the latter, or vice versa can go on. An attempt to do both bring best results and set in motion a virtuous circle. In Urban Sanitation debates and seminars, we have been discussing the latter. We have talked of the various models which incentivize/disincentivise professional service delivery. We have also talked about the best technology options for processing this huge (for most cities, typically, the solid waste runs into hundreds of Metric tons per day) waste. As far as ‘behavioural change’ is concerned, it has found place in DPRs (Detailed Project Reports) for big solid waste transportation projects as one of the activities. The aspect, we must admit, has got a secondary status. Not because the intentions are not there, but a) because there is a vacuum of organizations ‘skilled’ in bringing about this behavioural change b) there has not been a demonstrable experimentation with this and would hence involve ‘risks’ (of the unknown). With good backing up with infrastructure creation, we are however convinced, having working with this for over a year now, that this is the only sustainable approach.

The opportunity came when the cities were asked to prepare CSPs- City Sanitation Plans. We were very convinced with two facts- one the Plan has to be an ‘implementable’ (practical) plan. There is no point in making a plan, the implementation of which requires as much funds as one would never get! Second, there can be no time gap between Plan preparation and Plan implementation. We were prepared to go ahead with the Plan implementation with our own financial resources before we could get external funds. Even otherwise, fortunately for us, the city is a Jnnurm city, and all infrastructure works that were to support a ‘clean city’ – Storm Water drains, Sewerage Network, houses with toilets for slum dwellers- are going on. The only gap was to look at the ‘micro issues’- of peoples’ involvement in keeping their area clean. The challenge was to drive across the message- People get the kind of city they deserve’- effectively to the citizens.

Before we began, we were aware of the challenges/questions that would arise. This citizens approach for cleanliness was being adopted for the first time in an urban scenario, and therefore there were questions that came to mind. Whether Communities will come together for this cause? In a city, where vis a vis rural areas, political equations are more sensitive, would any such experiment that also carries a potential for nurturing new leadership be allowed? What will be the ‘triggering’ tools for ‘solid waste’- till now these have been developed for ‘open defaecation’ only ! How will we respond to increased demands and increased accountability once the citizen groups get involved in sanitation- once they are part of the ‘solution’ ?

Determined to find answers to these questions by doing, we engaged Knowledge Links and Feedback Foundation to carry out the work of ‘behavioural change’ for sanitation in Nanded city. These two organizations are trained in and believers in the CLTS (Community Led Total Sanitation) approach- an approach which emphasizes ‘collective behavioural change in the community and triggering of the community to work for itself. The approach looks at the final outcome- improved sanitation standards- rather than outputs such as number of toilets constructed- and abhors anything (such as a subsidy!) that is detrimental to such a collective effort. Knowledge Links and Feedback Foundation, each began to work in 2 Prabhags. The Cityis divided into 4 Prabhags. The work began with a City level workshop in early 2011, attended by experts and prominent citizen groups from the city during which deliberations were made on various aspects of Sanitation in the City. This was followed by Prabhag level workshops, where more citizens and potential ‘natural leaders’ were invited and given exposure to CLTS approach over a period of three days. The real work with the communities, the hallmark of CLTS began then.

In the initial two months, February and March 2011, both the agencies worked closely with the people and the NWCMC to formulate the City Sanitation Plan. The data available with the NWCMC was validated through many citizen workshops. Many of these workshops tried to get addressed from the participants themselves- what were the sanitation issues in their areas, what were their responsibilities, and what were NWCMC’s responsibilities. The occasion of Plan preparation was also an opportunity to do ‘triggering’ in the communities on a pilot basis and fine tune the triggering tools. Over two months, on the 31stMarch, 2011, a Participative Plan was ready and we started its implementation on the 1st April, 2012.

Consciously and understandably, the work began from slums. Slums have their unique character. In Nanded, most slums are actually unauthorized lay outs where people of the unorganized labour sector- hawkers, fruit sellers, auto rickshaw drivers, house maids, beggars, labour in organized and unorganized sector, some skilled craftsmen such as potters, broom makers – live. The land belongs to people only at such places. The issues of sanitation at such places arises from multiple reasons such as- a) poor service delivery for e.g. the garbage collection van may not reach every house because of poor road or narrow lanes b) peoples’ expectation of services is less- they have stayed traditionally in environments where children are defaecating in open drains, there are heaps of garbage etc.

In such areas, the representational institutional structure in the local Government is also poor. A councilor represents about 5000 to 10,000 population, and if he himself does not belong to the slum, the slum development gets ignored. In such a scenario, as in CLTS elsewhere, the approach is to talk to the entire community and let natural leaders emerge. This does prove successful, despite the apparent odds. It is usually the women who take a lead here. Holding a broom in her hand and sweeping the street is not as difficult for women here as it might be in a non slum area. And hard working, as they are, the slum gets a changed look in days. The NWCMC responds by improving the service of garbage collection van. The citizens cooperate by beginning to actively monitor this through a day wise monitoring chart painted at a public place. And by involving citizens in ‘positive’ sanitary behaviour such as – no littering, throwing garbage in garbage van only, not throwing plastic pouches (of ‘gutkha) in drains, not defaecating in the open. A community once triggered knows no bounds. They then move on to segregating ( not mixing!) their house hold dry and wet waste and digging pits for converting their wet waste into ‘compost’. The dry waste they can sell to the kabadi walla (scrap dealer) and utilize that money for a bona fide purpose such as donation to the needy! They would also join hands with NWCMC for any good social cause such as tree plantation, minimizing plastic use etc. The NWCMC begins to gain by a) earning respect for the work it does b) increase in efficiency through partnering with citizens c) better monitoring of its services d) financial gain possible by its tactical withdrawl if the community takes up the sanitation management itself fully. It is a 100% ‘win-win’.

In slums, fortunately, under the BSUP (Basic Services for the Urban Poor) scheme, houses and infrastructure is also being done that shall take care of drinking water supply, toilets and sewerage network. Even in BSUP scheme, we have tried to encourage community mobilization by involving two partners- SPARC and Media Matters. While the former directly supports the community in constructing their own assets by hand holding them, the latter held six days residential workshops with representatives from the slums to help create better understanding and trust amongst the infrastructure provider (NWCMC) and the slum dwellers. The tool of participative theatre made the entire exercise that much more interesting and fruitful. The community that is geared up and involved in such programmes naturally gets involved in the sanitation programme more readily and vice versa. Good efforts multiply.

Having reasonably tested the community approach in the slums, we moved to non slums. These are the areas where service delivery standards and infrastructure is relatively better. Any shortfall is quickly voiced and hence response from the administration is also quicker. In these areas, we laid more focus on issues such as segregation of waste. One housing complex/colony- a group of about 10-40 houses would usually form a unit in such cases for a collective behavioural change. The ongoing efforts prior to CLTS also got encouragement. One Mrs. Mukhedkar from Uday Nagar was already a champion of waste segregation at the household level and its composting. Once CLTS was initiated, not only did she revive efforts in her community, she also became a resource person to spread the technology and technique elsewhere. The non slums also utilized the occasions of various festivals such as ‘Makar Sankranti’ to gather women around the sanitation cause and promote efforts such as non plastic use.

Realising that children were coming out in big numbers as the ‘change agents’ and natural leaders during triggering, efforts were made to trigger schools and colleges. The student hostels were also triggered. Competitions were also used as a medium to involve them. The students of MSW(Masters in Social Work) got a particularly good chance to do this hands on work in social change. In turn, they helped us to spread the message faster. These students also partnered effectively with the NWCMC in maintaining cleanliness during festivals such as Ganesh festival and did a remarkable work at many occasions including collecting Nirmalaya during Ganpati visarjan and disposing it properly. The school and college students also participated in Sanitation rallies, made efforts to keep their own school/college premise clean, helped in triggering shop keepers to keep a dust bin in their shops to help market area looking clean and physically assisting the NWCMC staff/labour during ‘Clean-up city’ campaimomgns.

An important stakeholder in this whole exercise is the Sanitary staff of the NWCMC. The SI (Sanitary Inspector) is the NWCMC officer responsible for sanitation of about 25000 to 50000 population. As we are short of permanent labour, the work of collection and transportation of garbage from households and the city has been given to a private company which engages manpower and machinery to do this work. The SI work then gets reduced to supervising and getting work done from this company. The overall responsibility being of the NWCMC, this backseat driving is not an easy task. The SI s response to the Knowledge Links and Feedback Foundation has changed over the year. In the initial stages, there was skepticism, a threat – that our weaknesses in service delivery would now be exposed. However, as everyone realized that KL and FF were there to help bringing about a positive behavioural change in the people towards sanitation, and that in turn would make our job easier, they were welcomed and Sis worked as a team with them. We have been very cautious from the beginning not to get over dependent on external agencies like KL and FF lest the process should die out once they leave. The attempt has been to rub on the skills on to our staff and other stake holders. TheKL and FF have now made a place in the hearts of all stakeholders of sanitation in the city, especially the citizens themselves.

As the garbage collection service has been privatized, the people of that company have also closely worked with and appreciated the work carried out by KL and FV. As the service delivery must improve after triggering, once the citizens have taken the first step, this close coordination between KL/FF and the Garbage transportation company staff and our SI s is sine qua non for the success of this effort.

NWCMC has a political wing and an administrative wing. The political wing consists of 79 Councillors, each representing about 5000 population, elected by the citizens every five years. He is their representative in the local government and his job is to influence policies to suit the interest of his constituency as well as implement schemes/works to benefit his constituency. This election is fiercely contested i.e. to say, power to speak on behalf of the citizens is won not easily, and hence not shared liberally. Wisely enough, therefore, the Councillors are first taken into confidence while initiating this community work. It has been the experience, that once the Councillors also realize, that the effort is genuine, in citizens interest, and non political, they support the efforts.

While the work at the micro level continued, much away from the media glare and discussions at various public platforms, efforts were undertaken to supplement this with ‘events’. One of these was a City wide sanitation maharally on the 23rd June, 2011. Flagged simultaneously from six places in the city by H’ble Mayor, Deputy Mayor, MLA and other dignitaries, thousands of men, women and children walked miles to gather at Old Mondha, a landmark point in the city. Many Councillors participated. It served the purpose of bringing sanitation on the forefront. It also was a celebration point for communities to participate in this event and inspire others. Another occasion was the day of Ganpati visarjan. While the God is immersed in the Godavri river, many other things- flower garlands etc- are also thrown in the river, thereby polluting it. Knowledge Links effectively mobilized students from many MSW colleges which wore badges and successfully collected Nirmalaya from the citizens and disposed it properly. They also participated next day in cleaning up the main roads that had become dirty owing to the processions the earlier day along with the NWCMC staff.

While the communities were cooperating in a positive way, there were still gaps in service delivery and there was increasing demand for ‘cleaning up’ the city. So we planned for a three days ‘Clean up Nanded’ campaign, beginning on October 02, 2011. The objective was to clean up the city in a mission mode. There are areas in a city, sometimes out of sight, where garbage is dumped chronically and the daily cleaning cannot address it. We mobilized the entire machinery of NWCMC. Our officers got down in the drains cleaning them and took brooms in their hands. It was a big confidence building measure with our labour who traditionally does this ‘unpleasant’ work. It was a great sensitization experience for all of us. Our morales were boosted. The citizens, students also joined in this effort.

Competition is a great motivator. We used the occasion of Ganpati festival to promote sanitation message and declared three awards in each zone and three at the city level. The awards were to be given based on inspection and valuation of the sanitation work done by the Ganesh mandals with respect to –actual sanitation behaviour (which is put more to test during these public celebrations!), involvement of women and children and use of innovative ways to bring about awareness. Ganesh Mandals including some colleges actively participated in this.

As the energies of the triggered people have to be channelized continuously, we also use various occasions to carry out activities like tree plantation. Two such mega events have been done on 31st July, 2011 and 26th Jan, 2012. On the former day, mainly the triggered communities participated along with the sanitation and garden departments of NWCMC. During the latter, the NWCMC employees from all departments took the lead and implemented ‘one employee one tree’ campaign.

Typically, the community passes through various stages of empowerment and action in this process. There is pre triggering and initial ice breaking where the KL/FV teams get acquainted with the communities and decide the day of triggering. On the day of triggering, through various tools such as mapping, rice and shit experiment, hair and water drinking experiment, transect walk and facilitation of analysis of the situation, the community rises into immediate action and decisions such as cleaning up the dirty areas and stopping open defaecation. Then starts a process of institutional building where the natural leaders that emerge form a sanitation committee and take on the role of – a) cooperating with service delivery provider b) monitoring the services c) policing errant sanitation behaviour d) creating awareness towards stopping open defaecation and preventing littering and d) initiating activities such as waste segregation and composting e) taking up activities beyond sanitation such as tree plantation etc.

We have consciously adopted a policy of responding positively to community efforts as far as our service delivery , or if possible, infrastructure creation is concerned. We call it ‘positive incentivisation’. It is different from a carrot policy in that there is no promise made when a community participates in sanitation work. However, we try to reward the community directly or indirectly, once they have adopted good sanitation behaviour.

The process is closely linked with a) decentralization and b) empowerment. The decentralization is at this stage informal. The ‘sanitation’ committees are informal institutions taking care of sanitation issues of their areas. They are the active participants in the process and have a voice too. They are begin to get invited to and actively participate in public meetings. They are discussing issues beyond sanitation. There has been an attempt to formalize this institutional structure as well. The NWCMC passed a resolution in December 2011 that there shall be ‘Area Sabhas’ and ‘Area Development Committees’. The ‘Area Sabhas’ represent all the voters of a defined area which varies from the jurisdiction of 1-5 polling stations and covers a rough population of 1000. The ‘Area Development Committee’ is to be elected by the ‘Area Sabha’ and this committee has been given powers to execute new/maintenance works up to certain amount on behalf of the NWCMC. The concept is thus ‘peoples’ development by themselves’. The incentivisation of ‘good behaviour’ is also made part of this scheme called ‘Bhagidari’ where development works are allotted to ‘Area Development Committees’ if tax collection is commendable, if they have resolved for good sanitation behaviour etc. We hope that the ‘informal’ empowerment of members of sanitation committee shall help in the ‘right’ selection of representatives of the ‘Area Development Committee’ once these Committees are formed. Even without a very formal structure, these triggered individuals, at least in areas where they form a ‘critical mass’, shall sustain the sanitation movement. The challenge in sanitation is then to create more and more of these sanitation natural leaders, hand hold them and empower them formally/informally. Within ‘most’ of the communities in a city, once such triggered natural leaders and champions emerge, the city shall become much cleaner. The challenge also is to involve and trigger market areas and such areas of the city where there is lot of floating population.

There are challenges to this process as well. One challenge is that our supply side- service delivery must match the expectations of people. Till the time, people had not adopted good sanitation behaviour ( i.e. to say they would litter, use plastic, defaecate in the open), NWCMC and people were on the opposite sides blaming each other. But when each of them realizes its responsibility and agree to work together for a clean city, we must ensure better service delivery then. It is an immense moral pressure to respond to the good initiatives of the people. What is the best model that incentivizes most professional garbage collection and transportation needs to be studied and adopted. An ideal system would be ward level decentralized solid waste management. Till that is achieved, NWCMC must provide a professional garbage collection and transportation service to its citizens. The immediate services required are- a) ensuring that the garbage collection van reaches every house daily b) that there is a functional sewerage network c) that there is adequate maintenance of water supply and sewerage networks to ensure zero contamination of drinking water d) provision of well functional toilets at public places. All this requires both professionalizing service delivery and carrying out reforms such as levying ‘user charges’ for the service. There also needs to be in a place a good monitoring system (CLTS provides the best monitoring mechanism through vibrant responsible citizens) for service delivery. There also needs to be a professional system to check errant sanitation behaviour.

We have been learning sanitation by doing it for about a year now. In one year, a total of 426 communities have been ‘triggered’. Such communities have initiated good sanitation practices. However, within each such community the practice may not have spread to the entire population, and that is the activity the natural leaders in these communities have to continue for a while with support from NWCMC, KL and FV. 188 communities have become ODF, however this has yet to be evaluated externally. 321 communities have formed Nigrani (Monitoring) committees to monitor service delivery by NWCMC. 62 communities have dug pits and begun to make compost out of their ‘wet’ waste. The process has begun. There is a long way to go!



Truth Vs Hype – rebuttal

Truth vs Hype


I have never ever written reactively to media. There were days in Nanded, where I worked as Municipal Commissioner, and where, speaking humbly, work in the city was being acclaimed, when one day, since I could not visit a site (my wife had a medical emergency) where a senior journalist had asked me to visit  – he wrote an editorial, saying that my work was ‘nirashajanak‘ (disappointing). The article did not affect me a bit, and I went about my work. Thankfully, people of Nanded saw me day in and day out in the field, in slums, and refused to base their opinion on that article.

Being passionate about the subject, and having been trained in community approach, I myself get disturbed when Swachh Bharat leaves track of behaviour change approach and I mince no words in either trying to correct it myself, or bring it to the notice of concerned. However, the way ‘Truth vs Hype’ programme on NDTV projected Swachh Bharat yesterday, i feel the programme should be renamed ‘Truth vs Lies’ – for a misrepresentation is nothing but a lie.   Here is why.

Swachh Bharat is not something that can be painted with one brush. From the motivators in Punjab, who actually went to the extent of picking up shit in their own hands to trigger the population, to common people who not only built toilets, but also utilised the opportunity to build bathrooms along with that; from the spirit of Haryana – starting from Panchkula, Karnal, and then spreading to the entire State – exemplified by two young girls of Karnal, who built a toilet by going against their parents, and dissociation of toilet construction with incentive money; from thousands of women belonging to Mahila Mandals of district Mandi in Himachal, who sweep the streets of their village every Sunday, have dug soak pits, and moved on to celebrating birth of a girl child, and became so empowered that they began to defy the social custom of having to stay in unhygienic stables during their menses; from hordes of villages in districts like Shamli, Varanasi, Bijnaur, Agra, Hathras, Saharanpur of Uttar Pradesh, where there has been a massive shift from contractor-driven construction of toilets of earlier days to self-construction and to focus on usage, and where immense effort has been undertaken to build capacities of implementing staff in community approaches, where ODF war rooms have been set up to constantly break bottlenecks, where a motivator, even on the day of delivery of his wife, chooses to stay in the village, since that is being declared ODF that day; from Rohtas of Bihar, where the poorest Moosahars have also been engaged in the programme, and thousands of self-help group women of Jeevika engaged all over Bihar are in the process of behavior change; from a village youth in Assam who has been weaned away from a dangerous path by absorption in this pious work; from Hardas, Narsingpurs, and Sehores of Madhya Pradesh where there are countless stories of human grit displayed in Swachh Bharat- such as the gulabi gang –women wearing pink saarees and doing bhajans early morning on the pond side, shooing away open daefecators, to tippy tap innovation of Sehore, making hand washing easier in schools and anganwadis, to ODF Olympics, group sports held in ODF villages to bond people further together, to motivators even forgoing their food, if required, while staying overnight in villages, motivating people; to districts of Chhattisgarh, where people and administration worked to build toilets, not for money, but after getting convinced that open daefecation affects their health, where lakhs of children wrote letters to their parents on a single day, requesting them to build toilets for them, where adolescent girls of ‘Orange Brigade’ in Mungeli district took it upon themselves to lead the movement, where Padmashree Phulwasan Devi led more than a lakh women in Rajnandgaon district in this movement; from Chikamaglur district of Karnataka, where moved by a teenager girl Suneetha, whose father refused to build toilet in house, the taluka team built toilet in a day out of their pocket, where they engaged with tribals, winning over first their leader/opinion maker; from Kerala, where the State pushed 3 Rs – reduce, reuse and recycle quite effectively, to the extent of conducting ‘green’ elections – with minimal generation of waste; to Tamil Nadu, where successful solid waste biogas plants have been set up in Coimbatore, and where the self-help group women are in the lead of this movement; Swachh Bharat is all of this and much more. These stories will perhaps, never come in mainstream media. But these are truth; these signify change.

Let us now look at the bigger picture. The bigger picture is that sanitation coverage in this country increased at a dismal annual rate of 1% for three decades from 1981-2011. In Swachh Bharat, this pace has increased ten times, with sanitation coverage increasing roughly 10% every year. Do we want to continue at 1% and make India ODF in 70 years ? The increase of pace does not mean that processes have been lost sight of. On the contrary, Swachh Bharat, unlike any other sanitation programme before, has focused most on engagement of people and on behavior change. For the first time, Swachh Bharat introduced the concept of ODF –Open Daefecation Free, that signified two key things. One, the perspective changed now to elimination of open daefecation, and not construction of toilets. The ODF approach includes usage of toilets – obviously, unless the toilets are used, open daefecation will continue ! As part of verification, the village is checked for any signs of open daefecation, besides confirming usage of toilets from households. Secondly, ODF changed the concept of sanitation from individual to collective – this is in tune with the understanding that sanitation is a public good, and that good health requires that everyone in the community uses toilets. For the first time, any government programme has dared to measure outcomes, not just outputs. A complex factor, such as behavior change is being captured in the ODF parameter, since unless there is a behavior change, there cannot be usage. All this has not only been laid in policy, it is part of part of implementation, and part of monitoring. This ODF concept is in tune with what Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj said more than half a century ago :

“तैसेचि करावे चरसंडास । मळ दिसोंचि न द्यावा कोणास । आपुल्या मळाची आपणांस । व्यवस्था लावणें सोयीचें ॥नदीकिनारीं वा बोरंगांत । शौचासि जाती स्त्रियादि समस्त । ती कुचंबणा आणि घाण निश्चित । दूर होईल चरसंडासे ॥”

(It means, human excreta should not be visible to anyone including human beings, animals, birds and creatures like flies. We must dispose off our excreta properly. If we use toilets ( those days चर संडास were in use ) , it will take care of disposal and also will free the women from agonies of going for defecation in open)

Some of the above examples would have underlined another thing about Swachh Bharat – that Prime Minister has often mentioned. Swachh Bharat is not a typical government programme. It is a Janandolan, that is involving the people. In a typical government programme, government provides a good or a service to people, the ‘beneficiaries’. The way to measure the progress of that scheme is whether that good or service has reached people. Here we are talking of changing behaviours – both of implementers, who are to get into facilitators’ role, and of those who have been going out for centuries. This is a social change, one of unprecedented scale. Nowhere in the world, has a behavior change programme of this scale ever been attempted. We are learning by doing. We have experience of what went wrong in earlier programmes, and we have tried to rectify it. We also know what was done in neighbouring countries, and we have picked up the best practice and contextualized that to our country. For this, massive capacity building exercise has been taken over the past three years. Community approach that was confined to one or two places in the country pre-Swachh Bharat is the norm today. In remote villages of this country, I have witnessed villagers and natural leaders coming up and demonstrating in their local language, the trigger tools of shame and disgust, such as dipping  a hair in shit and mixing it with water. This did not happen overnight or organically or automatically. More than 500 of the 650-odd Collectors of this country were called to Delhi in batches and given exposure to community approach. The direct training of Collectors by Centre does not happen in any government programme, but Swachh Bharat could not have kick-started without it. In each State, a State level workshop was held with all the State and district officials, and workshop on community approach held. In those days, it was just a few facilitators trained in community approach in the country, and a few ‘champion’ Collectors who had practiced this approach. These few people were used to spread the message, to multiply champions. Social media like WhatsApp was used to connect the champions, to constantly expose others to this approach and to keep up the motivation. In order to multiply training agencies, good organisations of repute in States were given orientation, so that they could carry out these trainings at the district and field level. Help of multilateral agencies such as UNICEF and World Bank was taken to sponsor these trainings in the States. Officers like Amit Gupta in Uttar Pradesh (and many more- not taking names) utilized these trainings to bring about a shift of attitudes in the way of working and to equip the implementers with adequate skills. Such a huge capacity building and reorientation programme – that is being continued across many districts as I write this – has been the silent work behind the motivated people working in this programme from Centre to villages.

Thirdly, and most conspicuously, the programme today stands as a foremost priority amongst the development programmes. A Collector runs close to a hundred programmes, and all of them are important. However, sanitation has come to occupy his/her top agenda today. Realising  that sanitation requires leadership at the highest level, and also coordination amongst multiple departments, the Collectors were engaged to lead the programme from day 1. The district Collector, being head of the government in the district (or CEOs of Zilla Panchayats, heads of Rural Development) is in a unique position to involve all government departments as well as all sects of the society. Shanmuga, CEO of Harda, Madhya Pradesh, used to say, ‘our stakeholder in Swachh Bharat is every citizen of my district – unless everyone is involved, programme does not succeed’. From school children, to adolescent girls, to self help group women, to natural leaders, to panchayats, to professionals, to health workers to teachers, to opinion makers, to religious leaders to elected representatives – all have been involved in this movement.

Fourthly, a ‘toilet’ is no longer a sanitation symbol. No other programme touches everyone. The Swachh Bharat, with its collective approach and focus on ODF – that necessitates a collective action – ensures that everyone – people of all caste, communities, including the marginalized – have to come together for making their village ODF. There are villages that refused to celebrate Diwali and Eid, till their village became ODF, and then celebrated the two festivals together. ODF achievement is today a social festival that cuts across class, caste and community. Since the community approach does not restrict itself to engagement of only panchayats or opinion makers, but reaches out to the last person, it has led to empowerment of the marginalized groups and champions have emerged from these groups. Women, who would not speak in public, are today leading this revolution in villages, away from glare of mainstream media. A handicapped person in Chhattisgarh, decorates his wheel-chair and goes from house to house till his village is ODF. Transgenders join the movement in Madhya Pradesh and Osmanabad. This empowerment, this unleashing of positive potential of villages, installation of pride in them, having participated in this social change is the strength of Swachh Bharat.

टोयलेट तो एक बहाना है

हम को देश बनाना है

A programme of such mind-boggling magnitude is bound to have challenges. Swachh Bharat is aware of those challenges. The first challenge is that we are attacking habits – and habits are hard to die. Different types of innovations are emerging to sustain the changed habit. The villages are devising novel do’s and don’ts to ensure that people do not continue to go out. This sustainability itself is a nine month cycle. The scale of the programme is another challenge. Around 40% villages have declared themselves ODF, 60% remain. Capacity building has to be continued, focus on behavior change maintained and champions created. The rigour of ODF verification has to be maintained. All this is work in progress – wings of aeroplane are being painted while the plane is flying !

This is Swachh Bharat in its entirety. And what was portrayed yesterday?

There are more than six lakh villages in this country. A commentary on Swachh Bharat should comprehend this programme, visit the length and breadth of this country, and bring out the positives and challenges. It is easy to find three villages, and create an impression that no meaningful work has been done in Swachh Bharat.  It is not difficult to extract a ‘no’ from an old person in front  of a camera when asked a leading question , ‘aap ko kisi ne swachh bharat ke bare mein bataya hai?’ Reminded of the movie ‘Peepli Live’ ?  The TV show projected that only 40% of the villages declared ODF have been verified – thereby creating an impression that the rest are not ODF. As explained, the responsibility for declaring a village as ODF lies with the village themselves, since they are supposed to effect that change. After declaration is done, one waits for some time (around three months) and then verification is done, to check sustainability. The process of verification and new declarations goes hand in hand, and is a continuous process. The ODF Verifications are being prioritized, as also the quality of verifications. In addition, third party verifications are being done. The Quality Council of India surveyed 1,40,000 households in May 2017 and found a coverage of around 62.5 % (similar to Government figures) and usage of 91.29%..Another survey by the National Sample Survey Office in 90,000 households done two years ago found usage figures as high as 95 %. The show however ignored to mention these evaluations, and focused on a two-year old report done by an agency with a small sample size of around 7500. It is clarified that after this agency’s report came out and they mentioned ‘ghost toilets’ (that was mentioned in yesterday’s show as well), the Ministry requested the agency to share this data so that corrections can be made. The agency however, refused to share the data, mentioning ‘confidentiality’. This, compared to Swachh Bharat online MIS, where data of 17 crore households, of each and every village, is in public domain. The agency’s report mentioned ‘less expenditure on IEC’, when Swachh Bharat has long moved beyond conventional IEC to direct engagement of people, much of which is being done in a voluntary mode. By using indicators such as ‘number of visits to a household after a toilet is built’ , the agency has disclosed its lack of comprehension of the processes, spirit and soul of the Swachh Bharat, that has long transcended a typical ‘sarkari’ programme and become a movement. My co-panelist from the agency quoted from the Idea Book, authored by me, mentioning that construction should not be the focus’. Wish some new suggestion had come!

Shri Wilson mentioned about the manual scavenging and the plight of cleaning of sewer lines. The Ministry of Urban Development, that looks after Swachh Bharat (Urban) must be seized of the matter, and may comment on the same. (My views above are limited to Swachh Bharat –Rural, with which I have been associated). In rural India, the toilets being promoted are twin-pit toilets, where the faecal matter gets converted on its own into harmless manure after 1-2 years of stoppage of use. The pit can then be emptied by the household owner himself. In order to promote this, and address the ‘yuck’ factor associated with toilet waste, the highest officials of Swachh Bharat in rural areas have entered the toilet pit and dug it themselves. This should be a strong weapon against the tradition of involvement of only certain castes in cleaning of toilets. The awareness on pit-emptying needs to be strengthened further.  Also, under Swachh Bharat, most of the insanitary latrines (around 2.5 lakh so far) – that may lead to manual scavenging –have been converted to sanitary ltrines. However, one needs to be constantly watchful and focus specifically on this issue, until this is fully addressed.

As the show was on, the anchor was anxiously directing his team to show visuals of people going to field (for open daefecation). This picture is not new to India: unfortunately, Indians for centuries have seen, if not practiced it. It might have helped the TRP, though. A visual of a girl going on fast, until her toilet is built; or of children and women going out at 4 am to prevent people from going out would have created more impact, reflected the ground situation, instilled hope. And might have helped the TRP as well. That would also have been the truth, not hype.



Three years of Swachh Bharat


IMG_4855.JPGWe celebrate today three years of Swachh Bharat. This programme caught the imagination of entire country, with everyone feeling, this was long overdue. The Prime Minister made it clear that this was not to be a government programme, but rather a janandolan. Everyone had to be the change himself. The programme took inspiration, afterall, from the Gandhi.

In tune with this vision, the programme started off with a departure from the earlier approach of mere construction of toilets in a supply-driven mode. A new approach, ODF – open daefecation free – was emphasised, where the priority was to engage with the villagers directly and to engage them collectively to change their behaviour. In this approach, derived from the CLTS ( community-led total sanitation) approach of Kamal Kar, rather than a BDO ( Block Development Officer) giving speech on the advantages of toilet from a podium in the village community hall, and offering dole of government subsidy, a facilitator stands with villagers – them covering their noses – at the actual place of open daefecation and leads them in a process of self-analysis, which invariably ends with the conclusion that people are eating their own shit ! This acts as a trigger for a collective resolve and action by the village to end the practice of open daefecation and to construct toilets for themselves. The perspective thus changes from government constructing toilets for the people – which tend to remain unused – to government prioritising behaviour change, with people taking it upon themselves to bring about change. Don’t catch fish for them – teach them how to fish !

The collective ODF approach is based on the premise that health benefits accrue when no one daefecates in the open and looks at sanitation as a public good, rather than a private good. The goal is change of heart of village as a whole, and not construction of x number of toilets.

The word ODF has been defined to have uniform national standards and States have put in place mechanisms for its verification. This tilt of programme from individual to collective, from toilet construction to behaviour change was the most critical achievement of the programme. ODF today is a word of common parlance – from Parliamentarian to a common villager using it, and this vouches for mainstreaming of this concept.

In order to promote this approach, skills of community engagement were seeded slowly but steadily across the implementers, with a special targeting of Collectors, who were to play critical leadership roles in their districts. The Collector has a range of programmes to implement, but thanks to the political prioritisation at the highest level, swachhta has acquired priority in the development agenda for most States and districts.

In brief, the three highlights of Swachh Bharat have been a) the subject catching the attention of everyone, with Prime Minister himself prioritising it b) tilt of programme from individual toilet construction to collective behavioural change and c) penetration of community engagement skills useful for behavioural change.

However, as we approach the 2019 ‘deadline’ – by which a clean India has been envisaged, there is a pressure to show ‘results’. This carries a risk of degeneration of programme once again into a toilet-construction programme. Lest this should happen, focus on quality of ODF Verification may be reemphasised. Each State has its guidelines in place for ODF Verification; in addition Centre is to carry out independent third-party sample verification. The rigour of these verifications should be maintained in order to negate any false positives. Centre should also cross-share best practices amongst States, so that they can learn from each other.

The focus on behavioural change should be maintained. It should be underlined that behaviour change has to precede toilet construction – it cannot follow it. You can make curd from milk, but not vice versa! For this, trainings and retrainings in community approach should continue. These trainings and capacity building should take precedence over conduct of large number of ‘events’ that catch eyeballs and bring publicity, but do little to transform behaviour at the last mile. It is time to remind ourselves of the good old adage ‘work in silence, celebrate in success’.

Curious minds – young IAS officers’ questions on Swachh Bharat


Since last three years, on Prime Minister’s direction, IAS officers spend three months in Government of India as Assistant Secretaries, after completion of their two-year training period, and before they are posted in districts to start their work independently. I had an opportunity to gauge the minds of these young officers on Swachh Bharat during a recent interaction organised by the Department of Personnel and Training. I asked each one of them – they are a batch of around 180 officers – to write one question they had uppermost in their mind about Swachh Bharat.

Having gone through these questions, the first thing that strikes is that the officers seem to be well aware of the key issues pertaining to the subject. This was more than a cursory knowledge about a subject – signifying that Swachh Bharat (at last) occupies a prominent place in the development agenda of this country. Sure, they have been exposed to lectures on Swachh Bharat in the Mussoorie Academy ( Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie), and have observed its implementation closely and upfront during their district training.

A large number of officers asked whether behaviour change could be carried out in a hasty manner – with simultaneous pressure of achieving ‘target’ by 2019 ? They also expressed concerns on credibility of ODF verification. Of course, they had in mind issues of quality of processes and sustainability of outcomes. Having been exposed to community approach, they see quite well the paradox between policy – that focuses on collective behaviour change; and possible neglect of the same in implementation at some places. ‘Has focus turned back to toilets?’ , ‘Why the subsidy of 12,000 is not done away with?’ – questions like these from the officers raise a red flag and call for introspection. On the other hand, it is also reassuring that officers who will be playing critical role in making their sub-divisions/districts ODF over the next two years are well apprised of the issues and seem to have their head and heart at the right place.

My take on ‘pressure of 2019’ is that while it may seem to be a short time to effect real change, actually it may not be ! Swachh Bharat has been around for three years now – the strategies for accomplishing collective behaviour change are well known now. Drawing from experiences of champions across the States, a Swachh Bharat Idea book, available with the Ministry compiles these strategies ( See Skills for triggering tools are also much more widespread now, and the officers can draw on this skill-set to address their query on ‘How to motivate?’ The programme also has a fair understanding of sustainability : guidelines on ODF sustainability brought out by the Ministry, compiling best practices from across the States is a good referral document, that may benefit the officers ( See The mechanism for ODF verification has also been laid down clearly : and it is for the officer to maintain rigour in verification in his (includes her) district. Given this background, it should not be impossible for a DC or an SDO to make his district/ sub-division ODF within a year, provided he plans his strategy well, adopts the correct approach, builds capacities of his team and keeps an eye on actual outcomes. The role of the State/ Centre in this case will be to constantly motivate him, trust him, allow him innovations, address any bottlenecks that he may be facing, provide him the necessary skills, and expose him to best practices. This will do a greater help than ‘bureaucratic’ reviews and monitoring, which create avoidable pressure on the officer.

Officers also raised issue of difference in approach in different States : Bihar, for example, releases toilet incentive, only after the entire village ward is free from open daefecation. Flexibility for such differences in approach is one hallmark of Swachh Bharat : sanitation being a State subject, it is most prudent to let the States address the problem, the way they consider most appropriate, as long as they are achieving the correct outcomes ! Officers also wanted to know specific measures required for effective implementation of the programme in North East. The answers, they will find themselves, once they are in the field. What is heartening is that they are seeking.

A few officers also questioned focus of Swachh Bharat on toilets, and optimal design of toilets in high water table areas. Some wanted to know how Swachh Bharat could be a success in water scarce areas. As to toilet focus of Swachh Bharat, let me mention that this was a conscious thing inculcated in rural Swachh Bharat – for a reason. The idea of Swachh Bharat – especially due to the Prime Minister’s picture of broom in hand – meant different things to different people. Especially to the urban (opinion making) population, Swachh Bharat came to be identified as removal of kachra. In the rural areas however, Swachh Bharat was an opportunity to clean that shit that was invisible to the eye – it was distant from the village by the side of the stream. Away from media, it would never have caught eye as a public issue. However, it was precisely this hidden shit that was killing children – around 1000 a day in India! Therefore, it was important that Swachh Bharat be used to clean up this mess – since the main objective of the programme was health improvement. Many States concurred with this approach – they knew the danger of an early focus on solid and liquid waste – it would have transformed Swachh Bharat into a naali (drain) construction programme – something that was in much demand by the local politicians. Having said this, after two years of focus on ODF, Swachh Bharat has started to lay emphasis on SLWM ( solid liquid waste management) as well. In fact, during the initial years, there have been successful pilots of SLWM in States such as Tamil Nadu ( Coimbatore), Maharashtra ( Nanded) , Himachal ( Mandi) and Haryana ( Karnal). These are now being scaled up. In some sense, the fight in the initial years of Swachh Bharat was not a fight between toilets and SLWM ; it was between a supply-driven approach and community empowering behaviour change approach. As is well known now, the challenge in SLWM is also not technical – it is more managerial and community ownership/participation related. An agni pariksha of community in ODF prepares itself to tackle the SLWM more effectively. Like the sarpanch of Rampur ( Khagariya) , 1st ODF village of Bihar announced in the State level workshop – ” a year ago when we took up the ODF work, no one could believe we would actually achieve it. Now having made exceptional efforts for it and having achieved it, my confidence has increased. I assure you now – in one year henceforth, my village will not have any standing water”. No where in his speech, he was asking for funds or support from anyone. He was just expressing his resolve – borne out of positive potential unleashed in the ODF process. This is a real change.

As far as toilet design is concerned, it is clarified that Swachh Bharat does not promote any particular design, and is satisfied as long as the toilet ensures safe disposal of human excreta. In fact, prescription of designs from higher levels kills the local innovation, that is against the spirit of Swachh Bharat. The twin pit toilet has been found to be cheaper and more effective, and has therefore been prescribed specifically by some States such as Chhattisgarh. This model is not promoted as a cheaper and poorer version of the elitist septic tank : rather as a more effective technology. For most areas, this model should work. Even in some high water table areas, experts prescribe variants of twin pit on a raised platform. These technologies are well known and can be used. A greater risk to my mind has arisen at some places due to neglect of safe horizontal distance between a toilet pit and a water source ( handpump/ well). Problem also arises because of unsafely built twin pits – with pits 10 feet deep : since people believe smaller pits would fill up early. It is here that work is required for public awareness. (See tips on technology here ). For real water logged areas/ very hard rock areas, other technologies/ variants are available.
The question regarding success of Swachh Bharat where water is scarce is also asked much. It has now been proved that open daefecation in India is not linked to low water availability. Dean Spears from RICE institute has proven by research that India daefecates outside much more than many other countries with much lower water availability. This is not to say that water is not required for cleaning : what is being said is that rural toilets with high sloping pan do not require as much water as would inhibit their use. Even flushing is not expected in twin pit toilets. Plus, even in water scarce areas, if a family is arranging water for all other purposes – deinking, bathing, cleaning the house, cleaning the dishes – a 2 litre for toilet can also be arranged (or saved). The crux is that open daefecation is more of a socio-cultural issue that has nothing to do with less water. Now, this is not to say that water issue is not to be addressed. As young officers, you will be poised to address both sanitation and water issues. The difference is that while open daefecation problem will have to be addressed through a sociological behavioural change solution – water supply will require a professional service delivery. The latter per se will not address the issue of open daefecation. On the other hand, you can marry the two by positively incentivising those villages that become ODF by providing them water supply on a priority. This is also the official policy.

The social sensitivity of these officers was revealed when they queried about issues such as caste-based safai karamcharis, manual scavenging and technological innovations to prevent manual cleaning of septic tanks/sewers. These issues, being multidimensional, span beyond Swachh Bharat : and it will be great if Swachh Bharat takes lead in/ becomes the fulcrum for addressing these upfront. Officers also seemed apprised about the wider dimensions of Swachh Bharat, when they talked of measures such as banning of Pan Paraag (chewable tobacco) or showed concern on recent urban floodings ( in part due to choked water bodies).

Officers also had queries about urban Swachh Bharat. They felt that the component of public participation in the Swachh Survekshan questionnaire was skewed and affected fairness of survey. As an outsider, i resonated with the unease about one aspect of Swachh Survekshan. My fellow panelist, with due courtesy to him, explained at length, how in three months prior to Swachh Survekshan, their cities could ‘expedite’ ODF, with the result that most of their cities figured in the top 100 or so. It reminded me of the erstwhile NGP ( Nirmal Gram Puraskar) scheme of rural areas, which greatly increased the momentum of rural sanitation, and also tilted the programme in favour of collective change; however evaluations later showed poor sustainability of those results. The lesson was that efforts were made for the ‘award’ and therefore, lost its sanctity to an extent. An effort done, for its own sake, without an external carrot or stick, sustains longest. Officers also wanted to know the solutions for crowded slum settlements. Each slum may require a participative exercise in arriving at an appropriate solution, that is acceptable by the community and maintainable in the long run. A newspaper, after a city received ODF reward, mentioned that mobile toilets were made avialable for the slums at the time of Survekshan. The broad point is that evaluation is not a substitute for implementation. A periodic evaluation surely charges up the environment : however, it cannot be a substitute for ‘dirty ground work’ that has to be carried out relentlessly, starting from slums ! One is aware of the heaps of garbage, stagnating water pools and open daefecation on the rail-track adjoining colonies. Talisman will be improvement in these. Ministry of Urban Development may look into these aspects. Finally, the practices of solid waste management usually cited as ‘best’ are capital intensive, centralised ‘professional’ collection, transportation and disposal practices. An officer queried whether there can be equally good decentralised practices. Bang on ! Ministry of Urban Development is already promoting composting. It will be good to see city wide (on scale) successful examples of individual/ locality wise decentralised composting that substitute formal collection by municipalities.

Finally, the officers talked of accountability : with each government department being held accountable for swachhta within its own domain. The inter – Departmental convergence is critical for Swachh Bharat. These very officers will soon play the role of first amongst equals in district heads if various departments, and buck will stop at them. The ingenuity, grit and leadership abilities of these young officers will be called to test very soon. They have a golden opportunity to bring real change.

A few questions were interestingly different . I close with those.
1. “My mind is clean. So I don’t have any questions” !!
2. “Why don’t we design ‘blue whale’ type challenges for Swachh Bharat?

And this one was serious :

3. “What if we are not ODF by 2019?” 🙂


(Thoughts) On multiple partners, hormones and happiness …


Boy : What re your views on polygamy/ polyandry ?

Girl : I wonder why marry to keep multiple partners

Boy : 😂😂😂😂😂
U re super rebellious : more than the Xhusu tribe to which Nelson Mandela belonged !!

Girl : Was gud fr d times whn ‘live in’ was not discovered
I support live-in

Boy : Does ‘live-in’ allow polygamy ?
I mean multiple partners

Girl : I think only rule there is ur own morality
Depends on d person one is wid i think

Boy : How can ‘one’s’ morality depend on the ‘other’ ???

Girl : Ofcourse it does…relationships r about also wht d othr person wants

Boy : Hmm /:
Heard Ranbir Kapoor saying this once : well, i cannot be committed to someone only because he/she is not treacherous : has to be beyond that !!

Girl : True…but treachery is big…enuf to make cracks in a foundation

Boy : What abt the converse : if there’s no treachery, is that reason enough for rock solid glue 🙂

Girl : Hehe no…

Boy : Hmmm

Girl : In marriages it is about wht d partner wants wht d inlaws want..wht relatives want blah blah blah

Boy : Agree : marriages re more complex
But in case of multiple partners, wd it not again be abt what multiple partners want ?? 😉

Girl : Look at draupadi…guess she took care of each one of thm…
I dont knw any othr account 😛

Boy : Draupadi : Superwoman !
Othr account : Since society doesn t allow n those don t come to light : except perhaps may be some communities ? some Ladakh buddhists earlier days : where a wife wd be married to husband’s brother as well !

Girl : Ya …iknw it exists..jus tht i dnt hav info

Boy : So perhaps when society allows multiple partners, it’s easier ??
( Nelson Mandela s father had 4 wives )

Girl : Ur readin his bio?

Boy : Jus started : n that set me thinking 😂😂

Girl : Lol
May b u shud pick on d subject tht intrsts u now

Boy : Any suggestion ?

Girl : Hehe on polygamy/yandry?…gt to chk

Boy : 😊
Also read somewhere ( not sure if medically true) : that phy attraction to a man induces release of ocytocin in a woman that makes her want his emotional n non platonic support too ! True ??

Girl : Blame it on d hormones!

Boy : Hehe it s alwaz the hormones 😂😂 in few yrs all philosophy wd anyways be clear !

Girl : 😹 m sure it is d hormones@

Boy : So, till the time hormones r there, what’d be the right conduct ? ( the original ques 😳)

Girl : U in a very thoughtful mood 😳

Boy : Thoughtful ? Hope not intimidating ..Sorry !! Ve faced this allegation many times ‘ तुम सोचते बहुत हो’ 😔

Girl : 😆

Boy : ( And there s a philosophy, there’s no right or wrong – so let’s rephrase the ques : till the times hormones r there, what conduct wd make u happy ?

Girl : Yeh sochna padhega…i believe one shud always go wid d flw

Boy : 😊

Girl : 🤔 now thtz my thotful smiley

Boy : But u said relationships r also about what the other person wants : how can this, and going wid the flow go together ?

Girl : Therz no bindin to this thot
Itz jus an opinion
N itz no rule either
One shud go wid d flow of ones own belief n opinions
Now thtz my view on it
To each his own

My opinions r waitin to b dished out

Boy : Your opinions remain safe and non judged 🙂

Girl : Thtz d best thing ‘non judged’👍

Boy : Not sure when i ll be sure of my opinions :
To leave a thot, here’s a list :

Girl : Oh yesss plz share

Boy : 1) Perhaps, the best is to not have relationships, since they bind. In other words, be a Buddha. But we have hormones, and we re lesser mortals. Though aspiring for that !
2) In relationships, due to hormones n flows, multiple partners is ?natural
3) Since (today’s) societal norms do not permit multiple partners, purauing same is stressful : since one has to lie : which is heavy on heart !

Soln :
1) Be a Buddha
2) Change societal norma to suit your convictions ( r your convictions same as that of majority ?)
3) Give damn to societal norms; live with some lies !


1st two are ideal !
3) is jugaad !

And yes, if we re ving time for chats this long : means we re underworked !!

So , 4) is immerse in work/ passion stronger than hormones : and then, may be that ll lead to Buddha as well 😉 😂

Girl : 😂
Like the solutions
Underworked ? It is sundaaaay
A relaxed one at tht

Boy : 😂😂😂


Spread the word : short videos and long impact @swachhbharat


If i am a motivator employed in Kalahandi district of Odisha, or a Zilla Swachh Bharat prerak assigned to Nashik district, and i have heard something about CLTS (community led total sanitation) and triggering, but want to learn more, why should i have to wait for a formal training to be organised in my district – something that may (or may not) happen one year hence ?

Swachh Bharat has come some way from where it started. While challenges still remain, a satisfying part is a general acceptance of the following facts :
1) Swachhta is not about constructing toilets, it is about behavioural change
2) Swachhta is (should be) looked upon as a collective public good : therefore we should aim for open defecation free (ODF) villages, rather than a mere increase in number of latrines.
3) Behavioural change does not happen by merely bringing about awareness ; it requires a more closer inter-personal communication, facilitation of a dialogue with the community, bringing about a self-introspection and facilitating appropriate decision by the community : a process known as ‘triggering’ in the CLTS ( Community led total sanitation) parlance.

While the statements 1) and 2) above can be accepted more easily; 3) requires some immersion or at least witnessing the ‘triggering’ process. However, even after acceptance of ‘triggering’ tool as useful in behavioural change, the challenge of disseminating the skill is daunting, given the scale of work. Lack of motivators skilled in this facilitative technique is a major impediment in accelerating swachhta. In order to accelerate trainings in these skills, ‘virtual’ trainings have been attempted. With some drop in quality (as anticipated), these have been able to reach out to more participants and to allow inter-district cross-sharing as a bonus. However, on their own, they have not emerged as a magic-wand solution to skill propagation. At a policy level, an attempt was also made to 1) train State level agencies, so that they can cascade trainings down to district level 2) review guidelines, to allow States/districts to engage a trained agency/professional directly. The former had some advantage in spreading skills – some States ( for e.g. Tamil Nadu) were able to build in-house resources who are now being used to carry out further trainings in districts. Some States got the trainings, but did not put mechanisms to deploy those resources. The latter – review of guidelines – is a good enabling provision. However, its utility now depends on the quality of organisations/individuals empanelled. If they have themselves to be trained, before they can impart further trainings, then the advantage has been lost.

Separately, there is one initiative that has been talked about, but remains to be implemented. How to use technology to ‘demystify’ the basic skill-set required for triggering and behavioural change? Harvard has some online tutorials where key lessons are imparted through short videos interspersed with key lessons and also questions for evaluation. Video modules are also used effectively in other development sectors (for e.g. education) for training of teachers. In sanitation, while some skilled organisations have made such videos, that they may be using for their own trainings, and which are also available publicly on you-tube; to the best of my knowledge, such videos are not available in the form of a comprehensive module that describes various steps of ODF achievement, with narration by experts plus demonstration videos from actual field.

The content for creating such video modules is widely available. Besides the knowledge base with practitioners of community approach in the field, UNICEF, through Knowledge Links has prepared draft modules based on best national/international community approach practices of sanitation. Based on these modules, and capturing actual happenings in the field, customised 5-minute videos can be prepared explaining different strategies for achievement of ODF. It is important to associate actual practitioners (champions/trainers) in the making of such videos – and not relegate it entirely to big media units, who have the technical skill for media, but lack the understanding of sector. Keeping in view the end users – Collectors/CEOs/ officials; grass-root motivators; non-officials – the content can be appropriately customised. Also, given the rapidly evolving nature of innovations and triggering tools, these videos/ modules can be constantly upgraded.

Most users have a smart phone or access to internet. And they should be able to go through these video modules on their own. The video modules can be uploaded on the knowledge management platform of Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin Each State/ district can then be made aware of the availability of such video modules for use in district-level trainings or individully by any motivator. The videos can also be shared through social media platforms like WhatsApp. States can be encouraged to develop similar video modules in local language – with locally shot demonstrations – to be of greater use to grass-root implementers. The video modules may be later developed into full-fledged tutorials/e-learning courses.

Such videos will bring best practices and clarify basic principles to the army of motivators and implementers across the country. The users can use these video modules to get useful ideas and evolve their own innovations. That’s how knowledge will grow.

Authentic/standard video module(s)from horse’s mouth – Ministry – will dissuade half-baked knowledge on the subject abd bring greater clarity on the holistic perspective of sanitation – as opposed to a trouble-shooting approach.

Swachh Bharat : Reflections from Mussorie Workshop


It was certainly a pleasure to listen to such conceptual clarity – Jashpur’s presentation on sustainability – and a satisfaction that Swachh Bharat has travelled long in three years. When the programme began , issues like sustainability, taking along marginalised, innovations were practically non-existent in the field. May be Jashpur is exceptionally well, but conferences such as these reinforce ideas such as community approach and behavioural change as the norm now and will definitely influence the rest. I found the concepts like dephasing, special involvement of marginalised and promoting natural leaders/ SHGs particularly impressive. Such workshops for cross learning – not ‘reviews’ – may be a regular ( monthly) feature at State level as well ( may be already happening in some States).

On sustainability, as CEO Jashpur said, its built- in from planning stage is critical. There were days when ODF/ Nirmal Sarpanches would feel disheartened – that none cares for them once they are Nirmal. The necessity of continued bond of 9 months (period significant !) with a village after it has become ODF stands out. It is also good to note ( and to bear in mind !) that ODF plus/ sustainability activities have to be primarily village-led ( eg swachhta polls by school children to catch recalcitrant open defecators!) and administration supported – rather than administration-led and village-supported.

On ODF Verification – the approach assumes importance. Like Robert said, it’s a corrective approach and not a punitive one. The verification teams are not policemen – yes their standards will be high ; but the community should view them as guides and not critics. What should be supreme – this approach of guidance ; or accountability marked by certification? The two are not totally contraindicatory; but i guess primacy has to be of trustful environment than cold accountability. One also needs to ponder on levels of verification as well – नीचे से report नहीं आयी – is unacceptable. There can be one good level of verification – done by a well trained team, that should suffice. I am not sure if raising the level of verification up to State level significantly increases quality.

Of technology and likeness for septic tanks, there does appear to be a strong case for going bolder in BCC strategy for twin pits – making it aspirational as one participant said today. The distinction required however, is not between twin-pit and septic tank : it is between a safe and an unsafe toilet. And for that, demonstration of toilet construction in a village goes a long way in clarifying technology and promoting safety.

On MIS, there were useful and precise suggestions – including bold ones such as having provision for undeclaring ODF. I guess, declaration is a village/ community prerogative and cannot be reversed : on verification, the rigour of verification will reduce chances of having to revert a verified ODF. However, bringing in system of second verification in MIS and initiating it in practice may provide opportunity of unverifying in case of a slip-back. Many other useful suggestions came from participants – perhaps the Ministry can form a committee including the field officers who brainstormed on the subject for pushing through key reform in a time-bound manner (many already underway) and with real time field feedback.

The group on BCC and partial usage threw up issue of National Sanitation Policy : something that has been discussed earlier. What after 2019 is fuzzy ; but beyond goals of Swachh Bharat, sanitation issue will remain pertinent. Clarifying this fuzzy part is not easy – and keeping goals for later can make us complacent now.

The way Swachh Bharat ( Gramin) – especially the community engagement part – has come up can have interesting lessons for other development programmes. In which other programme do you see a Collector/ CEO making it his mission : but more importantly people, not just gram panchayats, but natural leaders participating so heartily in social change. There may also be perhaps lessons for the sister programme, Swachh Bharat ( Urban) , wherein community engagement – especially that in slums – needs to be substantially enhanced for sustainable solutions.

The point mentioned on inclusion of subjects like ODF in school curricula is critical and may be expedited.

The preferred approach in sanitation has been community approach ( derived mainly from the CLTS – Community Led Total Sanitation approach). However, since the programme has (thankfully) assumed high political/ government priority, sanitation, there is an overarching governmental push for the programme. Someone called it GLTS (Government led total sanitation) ! A social change like swachhta may be government initiated; however its sustainability will depend on the extent of community ownership.

MHM – Menstrual hygiene management – is an interdisciplinary subject involving the Departments of education, health, women and child, and sanitation. However, given the reach of Swachh Bharat down to community level, and involvement of SHGs, natural leaders, adolescent girls – it is heartening to note and good to expect that these women swachhta champions take a leading role in destigmatising talk on menstrual hygiene and also pilot/ support good MHM practices in their villages.

The group on issues of marginalised deliberated well on the problems and possible solutions. This is however, a subject that requires greater discussion and brainstorming. A champion Collector, who had successfully implemented community approaches to sanitation in two districts in Rajasthan had mentioned that tribal districts have specific challenges that need to be specifically addressed. A separate national workshop on Swachhta and tribals/ marginalised is long overdue now.

Arushi and many champions like her comprehend reasonably well the capacity building issues – and are spearheading the same in their jurisdictions. However, there still remains constraint of skillful trainers and/or mechanisms for their quick deployment in any district where they are required. This needs to be addressed comprehensively.

Discussions/ Suggestion on media engagement were also interesting. I guess, one approach is ‘hands off’ – you do your work, and let media take a note ( work, good or bad cannot go unnoticed !) There may also be a merit in exposing media personnel to triggering tools by inviting them in training workshops. What Collector Mandi Sandeep Kadam did is also interesting. He taught whatsapp, including sending pictures, to mahila mandals in villages working voluntarily in swacchta. Those mahila mandals in turn, enthusiastically called local journalists to come and see the work they were doing ! The suggestion of Collector/ CEO directly contributing articles clarifying the approach, strategy, achievements, road map and challenges to public at large through print media is useful.

Swachhagrahis ( grass root swachhta motivators) are now being engaged more proactively. The recruitment of these Swachhagrahis is critical to ensure that people with right aptitude and grit get selected. Natural leaders may well to be formalised as swachhagrahis rather than a more formal recruitment. Weaning away old inefficient ones and taking fresh motivated ones is a change management process to be managed skillfully. Karnal did that. May be others too.

Lastly, on IEC, a decentralised ( district) system may be better than centralised (State). State has a role – but the mantra for higher levels is to take up only what the lower levels can’t do !



A day with Dabbawallas : of bonhomie, hardwork, discipline and dreams


Who has not heard of the Mumbai dabbawallas –  in case you have not, may like to see this Youtube link

I had a chance to spend a day with them and see their work closely. Ahilu, the mukadam (supervisor) of Ville Parle group met me at Ville Parle East station at around 9 am. Despite being a Mukadam, he was collecting dabbas himself that day, one of his group members being on leave. ‘हम भी तो पगार लेते हैं, फिर हमें मेहनत करने में संकोच क्यूँ ?’ Ahilu left Pune when he was in his teens, when his father died, to join his cousins/ Uncles who were dabbawallas. Having worked for nearly twenty years as a dabbawalla, he is a mukadam (supervisor) now.

In his interaction with his group, he seemed 1st amongst equals, not displaying any ‘bossism’, but helping out his team members. As we reach the 1st house 15 minutes in advance, the lady of the house asked us to wait for some time. Waiting and having tea, Ahilu invites another dabbawalla over – he later tells that that dabbawalla was also a muqadam, but due to his poor work habits, all his team members has left him now, and he does collection only with his son. Still Ahilu called him over for tea, depicting an overall camarederie between dabbawallas.

We collect dabbas from around 10 houses – being a Saturday, it is less. Ahilu remembers exactly, which house in which building to go to ! Remember, he doesn’t go to these houses daily : he is covering for one of his team members. Which means he knows exactly the route and houses for all the 25 odd members of his team. He says, besides him, two other members of his team know this entire detail by heart, so that work doesn’t stop. In many government offices, it is common to hear , ‘ सम्बंधित व्यक्ति छुट्टी पे है, उस के आने पे आप पता कीजिए’. He is not literate, and does not use GPS. We do. And still (due to that) we do not memorise such information. Perhaps, our dependence on gadgets – and ‘curse of knowledge’ has affected our faculties ?

On other days, a dabbawalla may collect between 10-50 dabbas, depending on the number of customers in the ‘line’ he is allotted. Being owners themselves, entire money collected from the customers belongs to dabbawallas. But this is striking : each dabbawalla takes equal share of the collection of the entire group. I asked Ahilu if collection of each is not dependent on how many dabbas he collects? He said no, and explained why – ‘ किसी की लाइन (area allotted to each member) में दूर दूर ghar होते हैं; और उसे कम dabbe इक्कट्ठे करने में भी उतना ही समय लग जाता है; जिन कॉलनीज़ में ज़्यादा कस्टमर हैं, वहाँ के ज़्यादा dabbe होते हैं जो उतने ही समय में collect होते हैं’. On 7th of each month, the group sits together and the muqadam distributes the share equally amongst them. Each link work towards strengthning the entire chain. This team spirit, between the group, and between other groups, is unique to dabbawallas’ work, and cannot be duplicated through any computer programme.

From 9.30 am to 10.30 am, we collected dabbas. Without wearing a watch, and without any anxiety, Ahilu knew that we (and all his other team members) would reach the designated spot at 10.30 am, where everyone from his group gathers; each having collected dabbas from their respective ‘lines’. The dabbas are collected on the good old ‘Hero’ cycles that seem sturdy for the job. The carrier of the cycle has few hooks on which dabbas can be hung. Some dabbas are tied directly in knot to the carrier, smaller ones are also tied to the handle. Each dabbawalla has two bicycles, one at the collecting station, and other at the distributing station. I saw these cycles kept unlocked outside station, and asked Ahilu, if there was no risk of these being stolen. He replied in the negative. Everyone knows these are dabbawallas’ cycles and leaves them undisturbed. Just as they are allowed hassle free entry in respective buildings, offices etc. They are recognisable by their topis (caps) that are compulsory for them.

Once the dabbas of Ville Parle were collected, they were segregated railway station-wise – those going to Andheri, those to Churchgate etc. Each group member, including Ahilu helped in this segregation. The dabbas were loosely tied together, so that they could be picked up as a group. Even if each dabba weighed around 250 grams ( could be 500 grams to a kilo as well), with 10-30 dabbas on their shoulder, dabbawallas would be picking up 2.5 – 7.5 kg weight. Certainly not an easy task. Each member of Ahilu group picked up the lot of dabbas meant for his designated station and we went to board the train. I accompanied Ahilu to Andheri. We boarded in the general compartment. Ahilu said the dabbawallas have a train ‘pass’.

We got down at Andheri station. Outside the station, there were dabbawallas who had collected dabbas from other parts of Mumbai – just as we had collected from Ville Parle. They kept the dabbas on the road side in groups numbering 1-81. Each number represented the destination for one dabbawalla, where he would deliver the dabbas. Ahilu, from the marks on his dabbas, and even otherwise, knew in which all numbered lots, he had to place which all of his dabbas; a task that he completed in less than five minutes ! He also collected from the numbered lots, dabbas that were to be taken back to Ville Parle – dabbas meant for people working in Ville Parle, but staying in Andheri, and collected that morning by the Andheri group, just as Ahilu’s group had collected from Vile Parle. Being a muqadam, he also took a round to see if his group members (two of them had accompanied him to Andheri) needed any help. The congregation point was a lively place – dabbawallas from different groups stealing few minutes to chat with each other, have tea together, sharing their family issues, financial issues. A dabbawalla had his foot swollen, but happily came for work, saying ‘ घर बैठ के भी क्या करना है :)’ Clearly, it was a big family, big joint family, that interacted willingly and effortlessly. Have been in gatherings of doctors and bureaucrats and sensed a greater bonhomie amongst the dabbawallas than the educated professional groups.

One reason for this bonhomie could be that all the dabbawallas belong to varkari sect, religious people worshipping Vitthal ( incarnation if Krishna), and leading a simple moral altruistic life. Other virtues – hardwork, equality and equanimity, discipline, lack of vices – perhaps also flow from the religious belief. On Ashadi Ekadshi, they take two day leave to go to Pandarpur, place of Vitthal.

From Andheri, we took return train to Vile Parle, and distributed dabbas there. All this was completed pre -lunch. Ahilu takes pride in the fact that dabbawallas always deliver the dabbas right in time – appropriate time before lunch. He mentioned some others tried to imitate their model. One person deployed vehicles for fast delivery too. Dabbas in that case reached almost in the morning – customers did not like that and his business could not establish. After delivery in Ville Parle, Ahilu gets a one hour or so break when he has his lunch. His own dabba – he carries from home ! I bid him good bye at lunch time. I gave him some tip – that he is to share with his group. The tip was well worth the insight, learning and time spent with them. Many discussions amongst the dabbawallas centred around their financial condition – indicating perhaps that this hard work job pays enough to run the house, but may not be too comfortably. However, dabbawallas being mostly illiterate, may not have many other options at jobs. Plus, given the good community feeling, they find the job good. As varkaris, they anyways are contended people.

Post lunch Ahilu would make another trip to Andheri, to return Andheri dabbas and bring back Ville Parle dabbas. Thus, each dabbawallas makes two trips in a day, first to deliver the dabbas at work places, and second to collect the empty dabbas and deliver them back homes.

Everyone’s job is important; but food certainly occupies a prime position. Non delivery of food in time is an emergency – food is that critical. Delivery of wrong dabba is a smaller emergency. None of this happens, thanks to the meticulous rehearsed human system of dabbawallas. In case there is a rare case of indiscipline – not wearing topi, remaining absent – there are fines/ salary deduction : to keep the system running at zero defect and six sigma. Dabbawallas never stop – whatever be the season, whatever be the exigency ! Much of Mumbai eats because of these beautiful people. Ahilu says, we would stop only if the locals (trains) stopped : ‘ट्रेन बंद तो हम बंद’ – in all other exigencies, we are working.

What keeps a dabbawalla moving ? What is his ‘purpose of life’ ? What quality of life is he seeking ? What is his dream ?What ‘newness’ does he yearn for? Day after day, season after season, years after years, his entire youth and well into his old age, he does the same thing – the same routine : collects dabbas, travels by train, delivers dabbas.

He renders the above questions meaningless. His newness is his routine – the routine defines the purpose of his life. What he does, someone has to do. For not just the doer to keep moving – but for the bigger crowd, Mumbai to keep moving, keep eating 🙂 Dreams are not fulfilled empty stomach.

Wash up Mumbai


The Dhobi ghat at Mahalaxmi in Mumbai is a colourful place. In ways more than one. They dye clothes there. They are also a microcosm of splendid life colours.

The Dhobi ghat is accessible to all – unlike the gated colonies, where a guard notes your details and asks for permission from the resident before allowing you to enter. There are people from outside Maharashtra here; many from Uttar Pradesh, some from Andhra, may be from others as well. They came decades earlier in this place which was established more than a century ago by the Britishers. The locals claim, it was originally built with much engineering skill – with rows of small water tanks and piped water supply 24 hours. These tanks are still used – the manual wash with a ‘ वूश वूश ‘ sound exhaled by the dhobi, as he strikes hard clothes on the stone is admirable. Not sure if the machines wash clothes that well ! Many have installed big machines – since they wash hundreds of clothes together and save manual labour. There are also drying machines, dyeing machines etc. One person is boiling starch for application to clothes.

Sunil (name changed) clad in his underwear is a handsome young boy manually washing clothes. He says he is from UP and his entire family has gone to village. He, born and brought up on Mumbai, doesn’t like it much back in village and stays back. His naukar is on leave today and therefore he is washing himself. He puts white clothes separate in a tank with chemical. He has washed them meticulously with good soap application and hard hitting on stone with a वूश वूश. Coloured clothes are washed separate. Other days, he collects laundry from across. Clothes from far off areas of Mumbai reach this Dhobi Ghat. Sunil collects clothes directly from homes. His neighbour, who is washing in a machine collects from laundries.

The clothes are washed in the morning. Afternoon they are put up for drying. In rains, they use drying machines – ( those who don’t have their drying machines use others’ machines). Work doesn’t stop in Mumbai.

The children go to nearby schools. Many people bath near their small houses. There is a public toilet, that they use. Such a closed congested space will not provide the leisure of open defecation, any way 🙂

Overall, dhobi ghat is a good representation of Mumbai spirit – cosmopolitan, hard working, skillful, niched.

Dharavi : hot bed for learning and development


Some of you may have visited Dharavi, and know most of what i am going to say here 🙂 For me, two hours spent in Dharavi (Reality tours conducts a guided tour here) was time well spent. Balaji, a young boy from Dharavi, who has now picked up English fairly well over the last five years, guided us. His NGO found his ‘navigation skills’ through Dharavi extremely good and he was therefore the preferred choice as a guide for tourists. English, he picked up as a necessity, just like Dharavikars pick up various skills, for survival.

Dharavi, Balaji said, is not typically a slum, since many people do have some rights on land there. He recounts how his grandfather along with his cousin came more than fifty years ago to this place from Tamil Nadu – which was marshy and swampy. They first grew some trees here and then brought some land under cultivation – to claim right over it. That is how settlements began over this land by different communities. Over a hundred communities/ linguistic groups are inhabiting, what is called Dharavi now. These include Gujaratis, Marathis, Tamilians, Muslim community and many more – each staying in their own small settlement within Dharavi. Occupationally and linguistically, they are unique, and derive comfort from living with their own people. Typically, kumbhars are from Gujarat, papadwallas from Maharashtra, and phoolwalalas from Tamil. There seems no conflict within these groups – Dharavi cannot grow further now : this two square km odd area bound by two railway lines on either side, Dadar at one end and marshy area on the fourth. There may have been some conflicts earlier over land : now every inch of Dharavi seems to have been taken and so there is no competition.

What keeps Dharavians/ Dharavikars tied to this place ? The first thing perhaps is community. As people from villages come to Mumbai, they like to have the same community feeling – this security is invaluable lest a small village person gets lost in the fast pace of this Metro. He is willing to suffer all inconveniences – provided he has the satisfaction of his children playing with their cousins, overlooked by family and extended family; the satisfaction of having his own people around in case of any problem.

The second pull factor is housing. Having a place, a shelter, a roof over head is the most basic human necessity. Even a small place works. Places so small – less than 100 sq feet – accomodate families/ joint families. This house may have a tap inside where ladies can take bath – gents can bath outside in the street. The space available is as much as was occupied when no one else claimed it. So it varies, and a few managed to have slightly larger areas : still however, small in terms of a planned house. Of course, there are no – there cannot be any – planning norms here. Narrow alleys lead from end to end, at some places two people cannot cross simultaneously. Overhanging wires are testament to a complex grit. A few houses now have built second/ third storeys and rent it out at even 20,000 per month. The current market rate here may be between Rs 15 lakh to Rs 20 lakh for a 100 square foot. People from different economic background – up to even lower middle class – stay here. A house is not just a house. It is a work place. In most houses there are home-run businesses – tailoring, scrap, papad making, pottery and many more. Close to 10,000 professions may be found in this 2 square km area. For lack of any norms, the vibrant economy that this living space/work space provides may be difficult to find outside. Combined with the community feeling, this keeps local people from trying to move out.

Dharavi is also a place that skills you – more than any formal Skill India programme ! There is no compulsion on child labour etc – however, parents want, and children/ youth understand what will fetch them a livelihood. Opportunity to learn is at home itself or in neighbourhood. Besides the residential area, there is an ‘industrial’ area of Dharavi running different trades. They have all learnt on the job – and learnt well. There is scrap business, with scrap reaching Dharavi from bangarwallas from across Mumbai and even outside Mumbai. The skills vary from segregation to processing – and are specialised. From plastic, to aluminium to clothes, everything comes here – and is moulded back into raw material/end products. There are furnaces and machines. Balaji says there have been no major accidents over past many years. There is leather factory, churning out finished products. One shop here tells me, they source wallets for the brand ‘Woodland’. The quality of the product is indeed good, and matches that found in a prime branded shop. Someone has helped create a brand here as well – it is called ‘Dharavi’. The leather shop owner, who has offers to sell his products abroad, says many ask him, why does he have a shop in such dirty premise – why doesn’t he take a shop outside that he can surely afford. He says, they don’t know the ‘power of a slum’.



The annual turnover of these informal businesses is estimated to be more than US $ 1 billion per year. These factories may not have permissions – and in that sense they are ‘illegal’ ( or economical). One may ponder how is legality to be defined. A city grows faster than its rules and planning. It grows haphazard may be , but is efficient ( ? Pareto optimal). More people in Dharavi are skilled and employed than in any place outside. If Dharavi has done that (mostly) on its own, Dharavi has much to guide rules and planning and skill development- than vice versa ! For is not the raison d’aitre of planners/ State : skilling people and tackling unemployment ?

There are some other pull factors for this area. Dharavi is very well connected – there are six railway stations at walking distance. The area is surrounded by commercial area and provides close opportunities for work/ business. The Lokmanya Tilak hospital is adjacent, and anyone in emergency can be taken there in no time. Vegetables/fruits sold on Dharavi road (by Dharavians, for all) are cheaper.

What more do Dharavians ask for ? The space for many people is (obviously) inadequate and better housing is required. The response to formal projects perhaps has not been very enthusiastic. Some say that getting the same area outside is definitely not worth it – as it breaks the dynamic ecosystem mentioned above without much benefit. What kind of in-situ upgradation is possible, needs to be discussed with Dharavians and a model acceptable to them, and practical for all evolved. There is water supply and electricity. There are schools too – like other schools, these too need attention for improvement in infrastructure and quality of education. Sanitation is another area for improvement. Around 30-40% Dharavians – especially employees in industrial area – may be daefecating in the open. For residential areas, public toilets require maintenance. People are aware of need for better sanitation, and if engaged, sustainable solutions can emerge. The skills of people here may be further polished through government programmes. Those programmes do not seem to have penetrated significantly. Many NGOs also claimed to work for Dharavians, but barring a few, most have either failed to make impact or have a reputation of making their own profit.

Dharavi has cinemas, showing slightly old popular movies at Rs 20. There are no other prominent sources of entertainment – except small open spaces where children can play. There are religious places of all sects.

Seeing a slum from outside, one may have different perceptions – pity on how people stay in such squalor, or perception that many people in slums are goondas or land grabbers indulging in crime or anti-social activities. From inside, a slum is a place, perhaps more humane than a non-slum; a place where people’s grit and community living makes them resilient and tolerant of worse civic conditions, living with a dream of a better tomorrow, a dream we all live with. Their hunger for development, their skills and resilience is an unparallel asset. Ignore it, at your own peril.